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This physical metallurgical principle was broken by a recent discovery on a series of multicomponent body-centered-cubic BCC solid solutions based on Ti-Nb binary alloys termed as gum metals GMs that have extraordinary multifunctional properties such as ultralow elastic modulus, ultrahigh strength, and super-elasticity and excellent plasticity 3. Therefore, the underlying deformation mechanism responsible for the peculiar properties Alloy PTK this new class of metallic materials still remains elusive.

New intrinsic mechanism on gum-like superelasticity of multifunctional alloys Scientific Reports

Besides the high penetration, low absorption, great access to the reciprocal space, and high reciprocal resolution, the HE-XRDS technique can trace in-situ small changes in crystal structure, size, and elastic strain state even for nanocrystalline domains with a small volume fraction during deformation and phase transformation in bulk samples It is established in our present investigations that the Ti alloy consists of a nanoscale B2 clusters embedded in a BCC matrix that has a slightly different Nb content from that of the B2 regions. The nano-scale martensites consist of frustrated nanodomains of individual martensitic variants, which are distinctively different from the normal self-accomodating polytwinned martensitic plates.

Thus there is clearly a tension-compression asymmetry Alloy PTK, the detailed changes in slopes of the S-S curves at low strain values shown in the inset of Fig. With increasing stress, an obvious reduction in modulus is observed under tension, but a slight increase in modulus is observed under compression. Figure 1: Note that the existence of weak diffuse scattering signals located at the position is highlighted with red dotted circle in b.

New intrinsic mechanism on gum-like superelasticity of multifunctional alloys

The insets in a are the scattering pattern under compression loading and enlarged S-S curve Alloy PTK a low strain, respectively, showing the diverse elastic modulus at different stress states. More importantly, the in-situ HE-XRDS experiments verify through distinctive changes in the scattering signals during tensile and compressive loading that the superelastic behavior of the alloy involves complex phase transformation processes. Alloy PTK and Movie S1. It is a C orthorhombic structure space group No. It is an ordered structure and the corresponding disordered structure has a space group Cmcm No.


The detailed analyses of the HE-XRDS data offer rich information on the phase transformation kinetics PTKthe change in domain size DSand the local lattice strain of Alloy PTK domains, for perceiving the microscopic deformation mechanisms in this interesting alloy system. It should be noted that there is a slight shift in the stress level between the macroscopic S-S curve Fig. The most pronounced change occurred in the transformation regions from B—D. Figure 2: The inset in b is the scattering patterns of at different transformation stages. The slope of the lattice strain vs.

PTK textolite of 20 mm, ~ 1000х1150 mm, ~ 35 kg of GOST 5-78

Those values are in good agreement with the average Young's modulus measured by the mechanical method. When the applied stress is further increased D—E in Fig. The image usually called as the Z-contrast imageformed only by very high-angle, incoherently-scattered electrons, as opposed to Bragg-scattered electrons, Alloy PTK highly sensitive to Alloy PTK in the atomic number of elements contained in the sample.


Heavier atoms show higher contrast, while lighter atoms appear darker in the Alloy PTK. The existence of two kinds of Nb-rich and Ti-rich phase-separated domains is further confirmed by the spectra of energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy EDS Fig. Different from what was reported in TiNb-1O alloy, our observation is due mainly to the small amount of oxygen and confirms that almost no modulated structure in B2 nanodomains was formed in the initial state before loading. Figure 3: The TEM observations to show the origin of the different phase transitions.

Full size image Discussion The phase transformation described above for the Ti alloy is completely different from that of normal martensitic transformation NMT. Based on the TEM observations, the sample before loading is non-uniform in both structure and composition and consists of three regions: Both the number and size of the nanodomains of these two kinds of martensites increase under the applied load, leading to Alloy PTK observed superelasticity and nonlinear elastic behavior of the system.

But their growth is confined by chemical and structural non-uniformities in the austenite and by each other as neighboring domains. As no martensitic domains of any other variants are found in the whole HE-XRDS patterns, all domains belong to the same variant of martensite that is favored Alloy PTK the tensile load.

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Alloy PTK 4: Schematics to show the dual martensite phase-transformation mechanism during deformation for gum-type TiNb-4Zr-8Sn Full size image The stress-induced martensites in our sample are different from the polytwinned, long-range ordered strain state consisting of Alloy PTK self-accommodating variants as those observed during NMT. The long-range ordered strain state is suppressed by the random spatial distribution of various chemically and structurally different nanodomains in the alloy see, e.

Alloy PTK future hydrogen economy will utilize his efficient and safe hydrogen storage alloys. He has developed light and ultralight photovoltaic solar panels for converting sunlight into electricity and built Alloy PTK largest manufacturing facility for thin film flexible solar roofing materials. A common theme of his inventions is the synthesis of new materials utilizing novel aspects of structural and compositional disorder. The book explains for each of Ovshinsky's innovations the essence of his pioneering ideas and inventions. ready for installation.

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