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Type: Driver
File Name: amplicon_pc_27903.zip
File Size: 1.4 MB
29 (4.2)
Downloads: 12
Supported systems: Windows 10, Windows 8.1, Windows 8, Windows 7, Windows 2008, Windows Vista
Price: Free* (*Free Registration Required)

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Carnivore protoparvovirus 1; canine parvovirus; Amplicon PC 247H panleukopenia virus; NS1; NS2; sequence analysis; evolution Carnivore protoparvovirus 1 is a member of the Protoparvovirus genus family Parvoviridae, subfamily Parvovirinae.


In susceptible dogs and cats, Carnivore protoparvovirus 1 commonly causes an acute and often lethal disease, inducing vomiting, enteritis, diarrhea, and acute lymphopenia [4]. Viruses11, 2 of 19 FPLV is known since the beginning of the 20th century Amplicon PC 247H and, during decades, it maintained a certain genetic stability [6]. Contrarily, CPV-2 emerged as a dog pathogen only in the late s, most likely as a host variant of the Amplicon PC 247H virus or a related strain [7], and it displayed higher rates of nucleotide changes [8—11]. Indeed, soon after its emergence, the original CPV-2 type was replaced by two antigenic variants, CPV-2a and 2b [12,13], and in a third variant was detected, termed CPV- 2c [14]. Carnivore protoparvovirus 1 includes small, non-enveloped, linear single-stranded DNA viruses.

Population Analysis of Iranian Potato virus Y Isolates Using Complete Genome Sequence

Among encoded structural proteins, VP2 is the major capsid protein, represents the main Amplicon PC 247H of host range, and is subject to antibody-mediated selection [20,21]. On the other hand, the nonstructural proteins NS1 and NS2 are essential for viral replication, DNA packaging, cytotoxicity, and pathogenicity [22—24]. Due to the involvement of the VP2 capsid protein in host switch and due to its fast evolutionary rate, most studies on CPV and FPLV focused their attention on the VP2 gene and on the structural analysis of the encoded protein. Contributions on the genetic analysis of the nonstructural genes [18,24] and on the structural analysis of the encoded proteins are limited, highlighting the limits of available sequence data [8,25—28].

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The nonstructural protein 2 NS2 of FPLV and CPV is produced by the conjunction of left-hand nt and right-hand nt genetic fragments of the NS1 open reading frame, but no studies were conducted on the NS2 amino-acid divergences within this viral species. Only a few studies described the Amplicon PC 247H driving genetic changes of the CPV and FPLV NS1 gene Amplicon PC 247H the potential recombination events involving this gene [29,30], although recombination was hypothesized as a potential alternative source of genetic variations [18]. Moreover, the NS1 gene molecular features, as a useful tool in outbreak tracing, were only recently reconsidered [31,32].

Amplicon PC 247H analyses, genetic diversity estimation, evaluation of potential recombination events, and phylogeny studies were performed to better elucidate the molecular features of NS1 and its role in the evolution of CPV-2 and Amplicon PC 247H. Vertical transmission is also a serious problem for commercial tuber seed production in potato Blanc et al. The monopartite genome is composed of a single-stranded, positive-sense RNA molecule of about 10, nucleotides long containing a single open reading frame ORF Lorenzen et al.

The encoded large polyprotein is processed by three virus-encoded proteases to produce at least 10 mature functional proteins Urcuqui-Inchima et al.

Studies of the molecular evolutionary history of viruses are very complex as they involve understanding variation caused by mutation, recombination, selection pressure and adaptation Moury et al. Hence, information on this aspect of viruses is essential to design management and control strategies in order to hinder Amplicon PC 247H spread.

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Potato Solanum tubersum L. PVY is one of the most damaging potato viruses in Iran and is responsible for the main yield losses Pourrahim et al.

Numerous studies have focused on etiology, pathogenesis, ecology, molecular biology and control of the virus Amplicon PC 247H et al. In the current study, we used different experimentally evolutionary approaches in order to understand the factors that influence PVY variability.

Molecular Characterization and Evolutionary Analyses of Carnivore Protoparvovirus 1 NS1 Gene

By measuring the selective pressure exerted on the proteins encoded by the PVY genome, we found that mutations resulting in amino acid substitutions also contribute to PVY evolution. This analysis rarely done on plant viruses Amplicon PC 247H also help protein function and structure studies as well as virus epidemiology.


All samples were homogenized in 0. Amplicon provides free on-line after sales technical support covering the warranty period of our Windows 7, , Amplicon PC 247H Vista, , Windows XP, , Windows NT. Amplicon provides free on-line after sales technical support covering the warranty period of our products.

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